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What are composite materials? What about performance?

Views:6 Author:Linda Publish Time: 2023-08-01 Origin:

Commonly used composite materials are composed of low-performance reinforcements such as glass fibers and ordinary polymers (resins). Due to its advantages of easy shape, high quality and low price, it has been vigorously developed. FRP composite materials have been widely used in decoration, handicrafts, ships, vehicles, chemical pipelines and storage tanks, building structures, etc.

Advanced composite materials refer to composite materials made of high-performance reinforcements such as carbon fibers, aramid fibers, etc., which are high-performance heat-resistant polymers, and later include metal-based, ceramic-based, carbon (graphite)-based and functional composite materials. Although their performance is excellent, their prices are relatively high, and they are mainly used in defense industry, aerospace, precision machinery, deep submersibles, robot structural parts, etc.

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                    Among composite materials, fiber reinforced materials are the most widely used and used in the largest amount. It is characterized by small specific gravity, large specific strength and specific modulus. For example, the composite material of carbon fiber and epoxy resin has several times larger specific strength and specific modulus than steel and aluminum alloy, and also has excellent chemical stability, wear resistance, self-lubrication, heat resistance, fatigue resistance, and creep resistance. , Noise reduction, electrical insulation and other properties. Combining graphite fibers with resins can result in materials with a coefficient of thermal expansion almost equal to zero. Another feature of fiber reinforced materials is anisotropy, so the arrangement of fibers can be designed according to the strength requirements of different parts of the part. Aluminum matrix composites reinforced with carbon fibers and silicon carbide fibers can still maintain sufficient strength and modulus at 500 °C. Silicon carbide fiber is combined with titanium, which not only improves the heat resistance of titanium, but also is wear-resistant, and can be used as engine fan blades. Silicon carbide fibers are combined with ceramics, and the service temperature can reach 1500°C, which is much higher than that of superalloy turbine blades (1100°C). Carbon fiber-reinforced carbon, graphite fiber-reinforced carbon or graphite fiber-reinforced graphite constitute ablation-resistant materials and have been used in spacecraft, rocket missiles and atomic energy reactors. Due to their low density, non-metallic matrix composites are used in automobiles and aircraft to reduce weight, increase speed, and save energy. Composite leaf springs made of a mix of carbon and glass fibers have the same stiffness and load-carrying capacity as steel leaf springs that are more than five times heavier


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